- Legal Explainers (431)
- Resources (15)
Whom does the UAPA apply to?
The UAPA applies to anyone who commits a UAPA crime in India or outside India. It applies to Indian citizens irrespective of where the crime is committed.
2 Days Before Voting Day
In the period of 48 hours before voting day, all election related campaigning stops – it is called the silence period. This applies to both State and General elections.
What is the Model Code of Conduct (MCC)?
The MCC are rules and regulations for the actions of the political parties, candidates, people supporting them, civil servants during election time and anybody else who is associated with elections.
Stopping the Abuse
When faced with online abuse, your first step should be to see what the anti-abuse policy of the platform is, and what steps the platform recommends for you to stop it.
You are a public servant if you are working for the government, the government pays your salary, or the work you do is a public duty.
Meaning of Sedition
When anyone tries to bring hatred or contempt or excites disaffection towards the government, they have committed an act of sedition.
Army Control of a Disturbed Area
When it appears to the government that a dangerous situation has developed in a certain area of the country and it requires the armed forces to take control of that area, such an area is declared as a disturbed area. The AFSPA applies in such disturbed areas.
What are the Forms of Defamation?
Saying or writing something which is harmful to a person's reputation, is called defamation. It’s against the law to intentionally harm someone’s reputation, cause them to be hated or disgraced through text, image, cartoons, caricatures or effigies.
What is Article 19?
Article 19 guarantees protection of certain rights regarding freedom of the individual.
What are unlawful activities?
An unlawful activity can be through actions, words (spoken or written), signs or visible representations, etc.
What is Noise Pollution?
Noise is common in everyday life, but when it goes above a certain limit, it is considered to be pollution as well as a public nuisance.
What are the different kinds of disputes with respect to land and immoveable property?
Since land is considered to be one of the most important assets, the range of land-related disputes is huge.
What is water pollution?
Water pollution is changing of the physical, chemical or biological properties of water or the emission of sewage or industrial discharge.
What are the laws being discussed?
This explainer deals with the purchase and sale of immovable property in India and various modes of acquisition of property.
What is Air Pollution?
Air pollution is the presence of dust, fumes, gas, mist, odor, smoke or vapour, in the atmosphere, in quantities that can cause injury to human, plant or animal life or harm the environment.
Patient Rights in India
Patients' Rights include specific laws which guide medical health professionals in maintaining a standard of care and treatment of patients.
Citizenship in India
Citizenship is the legal status given to a citizen of a particular country, which is granted by the Government.
Duties of Educational Institutes
An educational institute must conspicuously display a notice strictly prohibiting the sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products within 100 yards of the institute.
What are Lok Sabha elections?
Through the Lok Sabha elections, you are electing the Members of Parliament who will represent your constituency at the national level.
Driving Without A License
While driving, it is mandatory to keep the physical copy (original, not photocopy) of a valid Driving License with you at all times.
Immunity for addicts volunteering for treatment
If a convict in a drug-related crime for a small quantity, volunteers to undergo treatment for de-addiction, s/he will not be prosecuted.
Right to Bail
The right to Bail can be directly exercised in the case of bailable offences. For non-bailable offences, this right is dependent on the discretion of the court.
Police Arrest With Warrant
An arrest is when a person is physically detained by the police. No person can be detained by the police without being informed of the reasons and the basis in law for their arrest.
Who can file an FIR
You can file an FIR if you are a victim of a crime, a relative or friend or acquaintance of the victim or you have knowledge about a crime that has taken place or is about to take place.
What is Contempt of Court?
Contempt of court is any action or writing, meant to lower the authority of a court or a Judge or to interfere with the course of justice or the lawful process of the court.
Holding Public Meetings 48 Hours before Elections
The law prohibits any public meetings which discuss elections through musical concerts, theatrical performances, processions or other forms of entertainment.
What are constitutional remedies?
The Constitution provides for certain remedies that people can use to enforce their fundamental rights. A person can file a writ petition before the Supreme Court or concerned High Court to enforce their fundamental rights.
Whom does the law apply to?
The Code applies to all employees and employers in establishments, any industry, trade etc, including Government offices
When Does MCC Apply?
For the Lok Sabha elections, MCC is in force from when the election schedule is announced up to the announcement of the results.
Legal Hindu Marriage
For a marriage to be legally recognized as a Hindu marriage, certain conditions must be met with respect to age, soundness of mind, etc.
What is a Domestic Relationship?
In order to seek relief for domestic violence under the law, you need to prove that you have a domestic relationship with the harasser.
What is domestic violence?
Domestic violence refers to violent or abusive behavior in a household that causes harm and may put the health and safety of a woman or any child under her custody in danger.
What is Theft?
Theft is when someone takes away your property without your consent. Theft is a crime in India and the person committing theft is punished with jail time of up to 3 years and/or a fine.
Who is a Manual Scavenger?
A manual scavenger is employed to handle undecomposed human waste from an insanitary latrine, open drain or pit or railway track.
What are Maternity Benefits for women in India?
Maternity benefit is the amount an employer pays a woman when she is going to have a child to protect women employees rights during pregnancy
Filing a Complaint against Sexual Harassment
The law has provided a detailed mechanism for filing complaints related to sexual harassment at the workplace.
Reporting Online Abuse
If you are a victim of online abuse or know someone being victimised, you must report it to the authorities.
Request to Obtain Information
Indian law provides citizens with the right to ask for information from public bodies. Any citizen can make an application for information and can access information such as details of project budgets, implementation status, the status of any complaint/application they have made to any government body.
What is Covid-19 ?
Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus i.e. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Declared as a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation in March, 2020, Covid-19 is associated with symptoms like fever, dry cough and tiredness.
Employing adolescents between 14-18 years
Adolescents are allowed to work in places that do non-hazardous work. These establishments that do non-hazardous work are notified by the government.
Public Servants Accepting Bribes
In India, it is illegal for public servants to accept money/gifts over and above their salary, in return for doing their duty, favoring a person or for not doing their duty.
What are the schools of Muslim law?
There are various schools of Muslim law. The law on Muslim marriages comes from the interpretation of the Quran by scholars.
Sedition and Dissatisfaction towards the Government
An act is seditious if your act results in people feeling hatred or contempt towards the Government. A person commits sedition if they use either spoken or written words or gestures, aimed at encouraging people to disobey or resist the government.
Special Powers of the Armed Forces
The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) grants certain ‘special powers’ to the members of the armed forces in disturbed areas.
What is the Punishment for Defamation?
If you say or write something to insult the reputation of a person, group of people or a company, a court can punish you for the crime of defamation. The punishment for defamation, in such cases, can be jail time up to 2 years and/or a fine.
If you want to show a film/movie to the general public in a theatre, you have to apply to the CBFC for a certificate. The Board examines the film, and then takes certain actions.
Censorship of Films/Movies
Censorship is when an authority (such as the government) cuts out or stops the release of information. The official stance of the Indian Government is that it does not censor films, it only certifies them.
What are the Freedoms guaranteed under Article 19?
Fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 19 of the Constitution.
What is an unlawful association?
An unlawful association is a group which tries to commit or commits unlawful activities or any activity punishable under Sections 153A or 153B of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
Punishment for Noise Pollution
Causing noise pollution can lead to public nuisance and environmental pollution for which you can be punished.
What are inheritance rights?
When it comes to immovable property, inheritance refers to the transfer of a property’s ownership after the death of an individual.
What are the rights a person has under this law?
The right to healthy environment for all persons is a part of the Right to Life guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution of India.
What are the different types of immovable property?
Under Indian laws, immovable property includes land, buildings, hereditary allowances, rights to ways, lights, ferries, fisheries etc
What are the sources and effects of air pollution?
Air pollution is associated with many sectors, which include power, transport, industry, residential, construction, and agriculture.
Obtaining Information About Medical Records or Reports
Patients have the right to obtain authentic information regarding their medical condition, method of treatment and options for treatment.
Getting Identification Proof (ID Proof)
An ID proof contains your personal details, which are useful for authorities to determine and verify your identity
Cigarettes and Tobacco Products
Indian law governs the production, sale, distribution, consumption of advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco products.
What are State elections?
Through the State elections you are electing the Members of the State Legislature who will represent your constituency at the state level.
What are the different types of constitutional remedies?
There are five kinds of constitutional remedies available. These are Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Certiorari, Prohibition, and Quo Warranto.
Driving a vehicle without a registration
It is mandatory to register motor vehicles before driving them, and after getting your vehicle registered, you will receive a Registration Certificate (RC).
Government’s efforts for controlling drug abuse
The Central government has different schemes and centres for prevention of drug abuse as well as for the rehabilitation of addicts.
Bail is when an accused assures the police that he will not run away or commit any more crimes if he is released into society.
Informing Friends and Family
When you are being arrested, before taking you away, you can choose a person (friend or family member) whom the police must inform about your arrest.
How to file an FIR
If a crime has taken place you can go to the nearest police station which does not necessarily have to be in the area where the crime has been committed.
What does the law say you can/cannot do?
While anything that lowers the authority of the courts can be considered as contempt, there are certain exceptions given in the law. These include innocent publication and distribution of matter, fair and accurate reporting of a judicial proceeding, fair criticism of judicial actions, complaint against presiding officers of subordinate courts and truth.
Advertisements through Television and Radio 48 Hours before Elections
Advertisements or sponsored programmes or reports which support or criticize a candidate with an intention to influence the election cannot be broadcasted on the television or the radio.
What are Wages?
Wages refer to all monetary payments in the form of salaries, allowances, etc. that an employer pays to a person for their work or employment
If you are governed by Hindu law or customs, then you can marry under the Hindu Marriage Act. This includes Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.
What is a Shared Household ?
You live in a shared household with your harasser if you lived with the harasser, have a domestic relationship with the harasser and have/do not have a legal share in the house.
Types of Theft
Theft is not just a crime if personal items are stolen. Many other forms of theft are there and the law punishes people who commit theft based on the situation as well as depending on who they are.
Is building an Insanitary Latrine unlawful?
Constructing an insanitary latrine is unlawful and an offence under the Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Act, 2013.
Who can seek Maternity Benefits?
Maternity benefits can be sought by expectant mothers, adoptive mothers as well as those recovering from an abortion or tubectomy.
Victims of Sexual Harassment at Workplace
If you are a working woman in any capacity, you will be protected from being subjected to sexual harassment at the workplace.
To be safe and free from abuse on the online platforms that we use in our day-to-day lives, you can follow the following tips based on the kind of user you are.
RTI Application Fees
Indian law provides citizens with the right to ask for information from public bodies. Any citizen can make an application for information and can access information such as details of project budgets, implementation status, the status of any complaint/application they have made to any government body.
Employing children under 14
It is illegal to employ or allow children under the age of 14 in any form of occupation.
Is Muslim marriage a contract?
Marriage is a contract under Muslim law. The contract can be entered into by fulfilling certain conditions.
Influencing Public Servants to Commit Crimes
You are breaking the law if you as a public servant help someone commit the crime of influencing public servants.
Acts which are not sedition
Criticisms of government policies and their actions, criticisms in good faith or to improve the functioning of the Government do not amount to sedition, as your right to freedom of speech and expression under the Constitution protects these acts.
Power of the Armed Forces to Shoot and Use Force
An officer can use these powers if they think that it is necessary to do so to maintain public order. The officer has to give due warning to the person they are shooting at.
How Can You Prove Defamation?
To prove a defamation case, you have to show that the person defamed you, with published material, and you suffered some injury to your reputation as a result.
Showing a Film Without a Certificate
Showing a film without a certificate or changing it after certification and then showing it to the public is punishable in different ways.
Who enjoys the Rights guaranteed under Article 19 of the Constitution?
Article 19 rights are restricted to citizens alone. These rights are not available to anyone who is not a citizen of India or who cannot be a citizen of India.
How does the Government regulate unlawful associations?
If the Central Government believes that an association is unlawful, it can declare it so by publishing an official Gazette notification, with reasons.
Effects of Noise Pollution
Noise can disturb our work, rest, sleep, and communication. It can damage hearing and evoke other psychological, and pathological reactions.
What are the advantages of having a last will and testament and how can I make one?
A will is a written document a person makes to describe how their assets and wealth are to be distributed among their descendants.
What is the responsibility of industries to prevent water pollution?
The Central Pollution Control Board and the State Pollution Control Boards fix industry specific standards on water pollution.
Why is registration of an immovable property so important?
The purpose of registering transfer of immovable property is to record the signing of the document to legalise the ownership and transfer.
Who are the authorities under the air pollution laws?
The Central Pollution Control Board and the State Pollution Control Boards have been set up under the law to monitor air pollution in India.
Non-Discrimination Among Patients
Doctors and medical personnel cannot refuse treatment on the grounds of gender, sexuality, caste, religion, race or place of birth.
Smoking in a Public Place
It is illegal to smoke in public buildings but you may smoke in open spaces and designated smoking areas.
Changing Your Name
To alter your name, you will have to follow the steps given in law and make sure that it is published either in the State or Central Gazette.
Who can vote in Lok Sabha elections?
All citizens over the age of 18 has the right to participate and vote in national, state, district as well as local government body elections.
Who can apply for constitutional remedies?
Any aggrieved person whose fundamental rights have been violated can avail constitutional remedies by filing a writ petition before the Supreme Court or the High Court.
Driving a vehicle without a PUC Certificate
It is mandatory for all motor vehicles, except motorcycles of engine capacity less than 70 cc, to have a Pollution Under Control Certificate (PUC).
Bail for using Drugs
For crimes committed in relation to drugs and substances, the police may arrest without a warrant.
Refusal of Bail
For non-bailable offences, you can be refused bail if the offence is cognizable and have the punishment of imprisonment for more than 7 years. The Court may also reject your bail if you have been previously convicted on two or more occasions of a cognization offence punishable with imprisonment of three years or more but not less than seven years.
Rights While Being Arrested
Upon being arrested, you can ask the police to identify themselves, show the warrant for arrest and call your lawyer. You must verify the accuracy of the memo of arrest, get informed about your eligibility for bail, get examined for major and minor injuries and get a copy of the signed Inspection Memo.
Where can an FIR be filed
An FIR can be filed at any police station. The fact that the crime may not have been committed in that police stations jurisdiction has no consequence to the filing of the complaint.
Who can file a complaint?
Anyone can file a complaint against a person who has made scandalizing remarks or otherwise stood in contempt against the judiciary. However, the contempt proceeding only happens between the court and the alleged offender. The complainant is only an informer, whose duty ends after informing the court.
How is the Government taking action against Covid-19?
The Central and State Governments took several actions to control the spread of the disease under the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897, and the Disaster Management Act, 2005 like restricting spread and movement by enforcing lockdowns or curfews and other measures.
Ban on Liquor 48 Hours before Elections
There is a ban on liquor 48 hours before elections. The day(s) on which a constituency observes a silent period is a dry day.
Who is Covered Under the MCC?
The MCC covers political parties, candidates, organizations, committees, corporations, and government-funded commissions.
Are Live In Relationships covered under Domestic Violence law?
You are in a live-in-relationship if you cohabit, i.e. share a house with your partner without marrying him or her. It is considered a domestic relationship between an unmarried adult woman and an unmarried adult male who live or, at any point of time lived together in a shared household.
Theft of Personal Items
Sometimes, your personal items like your phone, expensive gadgets, bag, wallet, etc. might be stolen. This is a crime under the law, and the thief can be punished with jail time of up to 3 years and/or a fine
Who is responsible for Demolishing or Converting an Insanitary latrine?
The person who occupies the property on which an ‘insanitary latrine’ exists has to demolish or convert it.
You are entitled to leave from work when you are having a child. However, this differs based on certain circumstances.
Actions and Behaviours seen as Sexual Harassment
According to law, several acts can be considered as sexual harassment. It include any behaviour or action that makes a woman uncomfortable.
Processing of an RTI Application
The PIO can take 30 days to process an RTI application and provide the information that is requested. If the application is made to an APIO, the information must be provided in 35 days time.
Blocking Users on Phones
If you are being harassed by someone through calls and texts, you can block them on your phones.
Blocking Abusers on Social Media
Most of the applications we use on our mobile phones and laptops, commonly referred to as social media applications, provides the option to block abusers.
Determining age of Child
If you as an employer are unsure if the child is below 14 years or above 14 years of age, then the age of the child will be determined by a medical authority.
What is the proposal and acceptance requirement for Muslim marriage?
There should be a proposal of marriage made by or on behalf of one of the parties and the other party has to accept this proposal.
Stealing or Selling Property by Public Servant
When a public servant steals or gets someone to steal or sell any property given to them as part of their official work, they can be punished for “criminal misconduct.”
You have a right to write about the Government, or its measures, by way of criticism or comment, so long as you do not incite people to violence against the Government or don’t do with an intent of creating public disorder.
Power of the Army to Destroy Shelters/Storage
The army has the power to destroy places where armed attacks are usually made, training camps for armed volunteers, or hide-outs of armed gangs or criminal offenders.
What is the Punishment for Printing/Selling Defamatory Material?
Selling or trying to sell printed or engraved material which is defamatory can be punished with jail time of up to 2 years and/or with a fine.
Censorship of TV Content
The Government can censor channels or even entire cable operators, block any content which may cause hatred or public unrest, and block content if it violates the code all channels follow.
Who has the Duty to Uphold the Rights under Article 19?
The duty to uphold Article 19 rights of citizens lies with the State. If a state action causes breach of any of these rights, it can be challenged in an appropriate court of law.
What happens if an association is declared unlawful?
If a person has any funds used for an unlawful association, the Government can pass a written order prohibiting them from paying, delivering, transferring or dealing with them in any way. The Government can also notify any place that it thinks is used for an unlawful association, in the official Gazette.
Sources of Noise Pollution
Noise pollution is largely a by-product of industrialisation, urbanisation and modern civilisation.
What are Partition disputes and how are they resolved?
Partition disputes refer to disputes around dividing the property of a Hindu Undivided Family as per the Hindu Succession Act 1956.
What are the offences under this law?
This post elaborates in detail about the various offences under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and other laws.
What is the process for registering the transfer of an immovable property?
Property or land registration in India involves paying stamp duty and registration fee for sale deed, and getting documents legally recorded.
What is the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme?
The Central Pollution Control Board established the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) to track air quality.
Transparency in Rates of Medicines and Treatments
The law regulates all costs that are levied on patients for services, tests and treatments rendered by medical establishments.
One cannot sell cigarettes to persons under the age of 18 or within 100 yards of an educational institution in India.
Proof of Residence
To issue different kinds of proof of identification, proof of residence needs to be submitted to the authorities.
How do you vote?
This post deals voting process.Before you go to the polling station, please verify if your name is on the electoral roll of your constituency.
Who are the authorities for seeking constitutional remedies?
A person can file a writ petition before the Supreme Court of India or the concerned High Court of that state to enforce their fundamental rights.
You have to be above a certain age to drive motor vehicles in a public place. To drive any motor vehicle (except a motorcycle with an engine capacity of fewer than 50 cc) the age is 18 years. Whereas, for a motorcycle with an engine capacity of fewer than 50 cc the age is 16 years. To drive a transport vehicle (for example, a truck), the minimum age is 20 years.
Vehicle Stop and Search
An officer can stop and search any vehicle if s/he has a reason to believe that a vehicle is being used to transport narcotic drugs.
The Court may cancel the bail, and re-arrest the person if the Court feels that during the various stages of the proceeding, a person is intimidating, bribing or tampering with the witnesses or trying to abscond or flee.
Duties of Police During Arrest
It is the duty of the police officer to inform the police control room of your arrest and the place of arrest, maintain a case diary during the investigation and based on this investigation, file a charge sheet.
How are lockdowns imposed during Covid-19?
The lockdown is imposed through a set of orders by which the National Disaster Management Authority (National Authority) requests all Government Ministries/Departments including State/Union Territory Governments to take effective measures to prevent the spread of Covid-19 in the country.
Who does the law apply to?
The law applies to the general public and prohibits the public from making such remarks against the judiciary. However, this restriction won’t be applicable if the remarks come under any of the defences given by the law.
Conferences and Interviews 48 Hours before Elections
During the 48 hours before polling, candidates and political parties should not address the media on election matters by press conferences and interviews.
Effect of violation of MCC
If a person violates the MCC rules, they can only be punished if the MCC violation is also a crime under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
Helping Someone Steal
If anyone helps someone steal, he will be punished with the same penalties as if he had done the act himself.
Is it legal to employ a Manual Scavenger?
It is illegal to employ someone as a manual scavenger. For cleaning sewer or a septic tank, necessary protective gear must be provided.
Salary during Maternity Leave
Employers have to pay women 'maternity benefit' for the period during which they are absent from work as a result of their pregnancy.
Workplaces where you can File a Complaint
If you have faced sexual harassment at workplace, complaint must be lodged with the Internal Complaints Committee of your office.
Refusing an RTI Application
When the PIO refuses your RTI application, they have to tell you why was the request refused, give the details of whom you can approach to appeal against this refusal and how much time you have to file this appeal.
What are the different procedures to get married under Christian Law?
The marriage procedure depends upon the person performing the marriage and under which denomination the marriage is being conducted.
Employers Responsibility towards Child Artists
When child artists are being employed for work, there is an obligation on the employer to fill out Form C as given in the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.
What are the eligibility criteria for Muslim marriages?
For a marriage to be legally recognized as a Muslim marriage, certain conditions must be met with respect to age and mental state.
Helping a Public Servant Commit a Crime
Helping, suggesting or encouraging a public servant to accept money or gifts in addition to their salary is a crime, even if they don't actually accept them.
Punishment for Sedition
The punishment for sedition can be jail time upto 3 years and/or a fine, or jail time for life and/or a fine, or a fine.
Power of the Army to Arrest Without a Warrant
An armed forces officer can arrest any person in a disturbed area without a warrant for committing or on suspicion of committing a cognizable offence.
Are Reviews/Critiques Excluded from Defamation?
If a review or critique of any public material or performance was made in good faith, then it is not considered an act of defamation.
Censorship on the Internet
Censorship on the internet can be done either by the Government blocking content is a threat to national security or can disrupt public order or encourage people to commit a crime, or Internet service providers and social media platforms can remove “illegal content”.
Are Rights under Article 19 Absolute?
The rights guaranteed under Article 19(1) are not completely free from restraint. Each right is subject to a different set of reasonable restrictions.
What are the punishments for unlawful associations and activities?
See the list of offences and punishments under the UAPA in this explainer.
An area comprising not less than 100 meters around hospitals, educational institutions and courts are known as silence areas or silence zones.
What are the essential conditions of a Muslim marriage?
There are a few essential steps that need to be followed to make the marriage valid, such as proposal and acceptance, consent, witnesses.
How do I address a land measurement dispute?
Land measurement disputes can be resolved by getting assistance from the government surveyor to conduct a joint survey.
Who are the authorities regulating water pollution under the law?
The main authorities for the purposes of regulating water pollution are the Central and State Pollution control boards.
Is it more beneficial to register an immovable property on a woman’s name?
It is more beneficial to register an immovable property on a woman’s name, due to financial benefits offered for women buying property.
What are the limitations in getting constitutional remedies?
If someone files a writ petition before a High Court for a particular matter, they cannot file another petition seeking relief under the same writ before the Supreme Court.
Who can you complain to about a grievance under air pollution law?
You can complain to the Police, Central and State Pollution Control Boards, Courts and the National Green Tribunal.
Right to Confidentiality, Dignity and Privacy
All medical professionals have to maintain the highest level of confidentiality regarding the private details of the patient.
Advertisement of Tobacco Products
It is illegal to advertise cigarettes or tobacco products and can lead to jail time of up to 2 years and/or a fine of up to Rs. 1000.
Complaints/Help and Support for updating identity documents
This post elaborates portals and helpline numbers for filing complaints, address grievances, asking enquiries and for help and support.
How do you register for a Voter ID card?
For a new Voter ID Card for free either in person or online by filling out Form 6, which is the application form to register as a voter.
If you drive a motor vehicle at a speed or in a manner which is dangerous to the public, or which causes a sense of alarm or distress to the occupants of the car, other road users and persons near the road, it is known as dangerous driving.
Powers of police and authorities – Search, Seize and Arrest
Police officers have wide powers to search and arrest people in drug-related crimes and in many cases, without a warrant.
Bail for Non-Bailable Crimes
If it appears to the officer or the court at any stage of the inquiry or trial that the accused has not committed the non-bailable offence, then the accused can be granted bail.
Arresting a Woman
A woman cannot be arrested after sunset and before sunrise (unless in exceptional circumstances) and a lady constable has to be present when a woman is being arrested.
How is Covid-19 testing done in India?
ICMR has approved four tests namely the Rapid Antigen Test, RT-PCR, TrueNat and the Antibody test to diagnose Covid-19 cases.
Once you have reported the crime by filing an FIR, the officer in charge must send the report to a Magistrate, who will take note of the case without any unnecessary delay, and proceed with the investigation. This is a mandatory step that the police have to follow, as it allows the Magistrate to take control of the investigation, and if necessary give appropriate directions to the police.
Where can contempt of court happen?
Contempt of court can happen anywhere - inside court, outside court, on social media. etc. Further, contempt proceedings can be taken up by either the Supreme Court, High Court, or Tribunals. However, the procedure to initiate proceedings will differ based on the place where the alleged contempt happens.
Ban on Loudspeakers 48 Hours before Elections
There is a ban on loudspeakers during the silence period – 48 hours prior to the date of polling.
Plying Voters to Polling Station on Voting Day
A candidate or their agents cannot ply voters to the polling station i.e. provide conveyance to voters to or from a polling station on voting day.
Theft of Vehicles
Taking away someone else’s vehicle(s), like a scooty, car, cycle, etc. without their consent is considered as theft. For example, if Ram has parked his car, and Sham takes it away, it will be considered as theft.
How can Manual Scavengers be rehabilitated?
The Municipality and the Panchayat have a duty to rehabilitate those involved in manual scavenging based on the list prepared from survey.
Responsibility of Employers
At the time of joining the employment, employers have to inform women about maternity benefit available in the organization.
Accused of Sexual Harassment at the Workplace
Only women are protected from being sexually harassed at their place of work, but sexual harassment can be done by anyone, male or female.
Penalties for withholding/providing wrong information
The Central or State Information Commission can impose a daily penalty of Rs. 250 on the PIO who has withheld information or provided wrong information. This has to be paid until the information is provided. However, the total amount of the penalty should not exceed Rs. 25,000.
If any person monitors a woman's use of the Internet, email, other electronic communication and social media, it amounts to cyber stalking.
Role of Schools in preventing Child Labour
The right to education of a child applies even if the child or adolescent is working as an artist or in the family business. School has an important role in preventing child labour.
What are prohibited relationships under the law?
Certain relationships are prohibited under the law. This means that a person cannot marry certain kinds of relatives.
Power of the Army to Enter and Search by the Army
The law usually requires that a search warrant is obtained by an authority in order to search a place. But under AFSPA, the armed forces have special powers to search a place without a warrant.
Does ‘Reasonable Restriction’ mean Complete Prohibition?
If a state action completely prohibits an Article 19 right, the court should test the constitutional validity of that action based on the facts and circumstances of the case.
What are terrorist acts?
A terrorist act is any act done with the intention to threaten India’s unity, integrity, security, economic security, or sovereignty, or to terrorise people in India or any foreign country.
Zone-wise Noise Standards/Limits
Depending on the area or zone, there are noise limits/standards which need to be maintained. If it goes above the limit, then it would be noise pollution.
What should I do if someone encroaches on my property?
If someone encroaches or trespasses on your property or a construction extends beyond the boundary line, there are legal ways to resolve it.
Who can you complain to regarding a grievance under the law?
For immediate action, a person can directly complain to the District Magistrate by an application under Section 133, CrPC.
How can I transfer property to an unborn person?
In order to transfer property to an unborn person, you must first transfer the property to a living person or trust, till his/her birth.
What are the offences and punishments under air pollution laws?
The offences include releasing of harmful pollutants into the environment, violation of Pollution Under Control Certificate, etc.
Right to Second Opinion
This right to second opinion protects the freedom of a patient to seek the medical care that the patient thinks is best and most appropriate.
Proof of Age
To issue different kinds of government proof of identification, you will have to submit a document for proof of age.
How do you change details in a voter ID card?
For changing details provided in your Voter ID card, acceptable specific reasons are change of address, errors in personal details, etc
What are the reliefs under right to constitutional remedies?
The five constitutional remedies provide for different kinds of relief.
Payment for filing writ petitions
In the Supreme Court, for writ petitions except for habeas corpus, the court fee is Rs. 500. For petitions filed for criminal cases, there is no fee. Whereas the court fee varies for different High Courts.
Triple Riding on a two wheeler motorcycle
While driving a two-wheeled motorcycle, you have to make sure that only two people, including the driver, are sitting on the two-wheeler motorcycle and the second person should be sitting on a proper seat, which is securely fixed to the two motorcycles.
Repeat or subsequent crimes
The punishment for a repeat offender under the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act is 1.5 times stricter than first-time offenders.
The law allows a person to apply for bail even when he has not been arrested, but fears arrest in the near future. This type of bail is known as anticipatory bail. The police cannot arrest a person who has an anticipatory bail order.
Authority to Arrest
While different authorities in law have the right to make arrests, they are generally carried out by the police.
How are curfews imposed in India?
Curfew orders are passed by State governments under section 144 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 to prevent the localised spread of Covid-19.
Where to complain when Police Officer refuses to take your FIR
If a Police Officer does not accept your complaint then you can write down your complaint and send it to the Superintendent of Police.
Who can you complain to about a grievance under contempt law?
Any person can file a complaint against a third party on an alleged offence of contempt of court. Such an application can be forwarded to either the Supreme Court, High Court, or to the court of Judicial Commissioner in cases of Union Territories, in the form of a petition.
Use of Religion as a Basis for Campaigning
A party or candidate cannot campaign in any manner which would result in creating tension or hatred between different castes and religious communities.
Theft of Computer-Related Data
Sometimes, your personal data stored on the computer may be stolen. This is also a form of theft, under the Indian law.
How to file a complaint for Safai Karamcharis?
If laws for safai karamcharis are not followed, you can file a complaint to the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK).
How to claim Maternity Benefits?
The employer must pay you your maternity benefit before your delivery. Give your employer a written notice of the same.
When to file a Complaint against Sexual Harassment
Generally, you must file a complaint within three months of the incident of sexual harassment that you have faced.
Appealing an RTI Application
If you do not receive a decision from the PIO within 30 days, you can file an appeal against the decision of the PIO before an officer who is senior to the PIO. You need to file this appeal within 30 days. This time period may be extended if the officer feels that the delay is justified.
Anonymous Threats and Blackmailing
If you get anonymous threats online or you are blackmailed online, you can file a complaint with the cyber cell. To file a complaint, it is not necessary to know who is responsible for the crime.
Duties of an Inspector to prevent Child Labour
The Government appoints Inspectors to make sure that there is no illegal employment and the permitted employment of adolescents is done as per the law.
Confiscation of Seditious Material
In a scenario where you are being charged for an act of sedition, every copy that exists of the newspaper, book or document which contains the seditious text or material can be taken away by the Government.
Can the Rights under Article 19(1) be Suspended?
Article 358 provides that Article 19 rights can be suspended if a national emergency is proclaimed on the grounds of war or external aggression.
How does the Government regulate terrorist activities?
If the Central Government believes that an organisation or person is involved in terrorism, it can notify them in the official Gazette.
Loudspeakers and Public Address System
Loudspeakers and public address systems are a common source of noise pollution in India and can only be used after getting written permission from local authorities.
What should I do when a ‘Right of Way’ dispute arises?
When a 'right of way' dispute arises, you can sue for an injunction to stop the obstruction or for damages.
What are the powers of the Central and State Pollution Control Boards to regulate water pollution?
The Central and State Pollution Control Board has been constituted to regulate and prevent introduction of contaminants in water.
How is gifting an immovable property different from sale or purchase of a property?
A gift is a transfer of movable or immovable property without consideration, i.e., without money. No payment is made.
Aadhaar is a 12-digit identification number, specific to each individual, issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
What happens if the air pollution is caused by Government Departments?
When an offence is committed by a government department, the head or heads of that department will be held responsible.
Protection for Patients in Clinical Trials and Biomedical Research
Patients undergoing clinical trials and biomedical research are protected under the guidelines issued by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization.
Responsibilities of Owners of Public Places
Under the law, it is the responsibility of the owners/managers of public places to ensure no one smokes in that public place.
What happens on a Voting Day?
The announcement of voting dates will be made by the Election Commission of India and it is made available on their website.
How to file a writ petition online?
For filing a writ petition online you can go to the Supreme Court website.
Using mobile phones while driving
You cannot use a mobile phone while driving any motor vehicle, as it can pose a danger to the driver and the public.
The punishment for Amphetamine (psychotropic substances) related crimes is proportional to the quantity that you are caught with.
Conditions for Applying for Anticipatory Bail
The person who is applying for anticipatory bail has to satisfy or promise to make themselves available for interrogation by a police officer when required.
Fundamental Right Against Illegal Arrests
The Constitution of India grants everyone a fundamental right to ask the Court to order the detaining authority to produce the person arrested and request the court to investigate if the arrest was legal.
How is the Government tracking people infected with Covid-19?
The Central Government uses the Aarogya Setu application to track community transmissions of Covid-19 and individuals under quarantine.
Who are the authorities under the law?
The Constitution of India, 1950 empowers the Supreme Court and High Courts to have the powers to punish for contempt.
Government Advertisement For Campaigning
Government advertisements should be objective, politically neutral and should not promote the political interest of the ruling party.
Theft of Electricity
Under the Indian law, theft of electricity happens when someone tampers meters, damages electric meters or equipment, etc.
Workplaces with Maternity Benefits
Maternity Benefits under law are applicable to almost all government and private establishments and offices.
Work Environment after Filing a Sexual Harassment Complaint
Victims of sexual harassment are entitled to legal protections to make it more comfortable for them to continue working.
Exempted Information under RTI
Your application can be lawfully refused if it requests information relating to security and economic interests with another country, breach of parliamentary privilege and Cabinet proceedings, whistleblowers, and so on.
Abusive Language and Photoshopping
If someone uses abusive language against you online or photoshops your image into content which is abusive or sexually coloured, that person can be punished.
Responsibilities while employing Child Artists
The post elaborates on the responsibilities of employer while employing child artists.
What is a valid marriage?
The validity of a marriage can be checked through the nikahnama, which is considered integral to a religiously-valid Islamic marriage.
No Case Against the Armed Forces
No one can file any case against any armed personnel, except when there is special permission from the Central Government.
What is the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression under Article 19(1)(a)?
The right to freedom of speech and expression denotes the liberty to express one’s views, opinions and beliefs by the words, writing, art, pictures, etc
What are the punishments for terrorist activities?
If a terrorist activity results in death it is punishable with life imprisonment or death, along with a fine. In any other case, punishable with jail time between five years and life imprisonment, along with a fine.
Noise From Vehicles
Vehicles are a common source of noise pollution in India. You can be fined if you misuse your vehicle horn
Ownership of Immovable Property and related disputes
Ownership rights on land can be acquired by succession, survivorship, inheritance, partition and purchase.
What is the role of courts in regulating water pollution?
The Supreme Court, High Courts along with the National Green Tribunal have made an immense contribution in the regulation of water pollution.
Who do you complain to if there has been an issue related to buying or selling property?
You can approach the court to raise disputes over land and property for various reasons including claim on ownership etc
Applying for New Aadhar Card
The process for obtaining a new Aadhaar Card requires going in person to an Aadhaar Enrolment Centre, and cannot be done online.
Referral and Transfer to Doctors or Hospitals
All patients have a right to continuity of care. Service and quality of care cannot change even if a patient is transferred.
Only certain public places can have a room for smoking tobacco products within their premises with the specifications prescribed by the law.
How do you verify your name on the Electoral Roll?
Before you go to the polling station to cast your vote, it is important to verify whether your name is included in the electoral list.
How to file a writ petition offline?
A person seeking to protect their fundamental right can file a petition before the appropriate court i.e., Supreme Court or a High Court. The petition should be filed in the prescribed form as given by the particular court.
Not wearing a helmet while driving
Anyone who drives a two-wheeler motorcycle has to wear a helmet or protective headgear. Further, every person, including children above 4 years of age, who is riding the two-wheeler motorcycle must also wear a helmet.
Maximum Jail Time Without Bail
If a person has been arrested for a crime and has been in prison while undergoing trial for up to half of the maximum period of imprisonment specified for the crime that they have committed, the Court must order to release them.
Illegal entry, search, seizure and arrest by police
The law punishes those officers who search a place or detain a person for drug-related crimes without reasonable suspicions.
Appearance before Magistrate after Arrest
Anyone who is arrested and in the custody of the police should be produced before the nearest Magistrate within a period of twenty-four hours of their arrest.
Which law regulates vaccines in India?
In India, the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 regulates the manufacture and distribution of drugs and vaccines.
What are the offences and punishments under this law ?
The punishment for civil and criminal contempt is the same. When one is held guilty of contempt, they have the option to apologize to the court and save themselves from any other punishments. However, such an apology should be genuine and not merely a ruse to save oneself from punishment.
Use of Public Property for Political Advertisements
Political parties and candidates are not allowed to use public properties/places like walls of a public place for political advertisements.
Fired during Maternity Leave
You cannot be dismissed or fired, conditions of work altered, etc by your employer during or due to your maternity leave.
Punishment for Sexual Harassment
The Committee investigating sexual harassment complaint will recommend punishment according to the service rules of their workplace.
Complaining About an RTI Application
If you have a complaint about the way in which the PIO handled your RTI application, you can approach the higher authorities established under this Act – the Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission. They have a duty under this Act to inquire into your complaint.
Online threats of causing physical injury or harassment can be intimidating, and is considered a crime.
Children in Movies/TV/Sports
Children can work in movies/TV/sports and be paid for it as 'child artists'.
Do’s and Dont’s of the Army
As per the Supreme Court guidelines, there are certain acts which the army should do, and acts which are prohibited before, during and after an operation.
AFSPA in Jammu and Kashmir
Most of the provisions applicable in J&K are similar to the AFSPA provisions applicable in the North-Eastern States. The armed forces have broader investigation powers in Jammu and Kashmir.
Who investigates terrorist and unlawful activities?
Apart from the regular investigation authorities, such as the police, the Government has set up a special National Investigation Agency to investigate and prosecute such offences.
If I have a dispute with someone about land or other immovable property, which court should I approach?
The location of your property is one of the main considerations in deciding which court you should approach to resolve property disputes.
Effluents: Waste in liquid form; usually outflows from industries, sewage plants or wastewater treatment plants into a natural body of water. Polluter pays principle: An accepted legal principle where the person responsible for the pollution is the one who pays for the damage to the environment. Precautionary principle: the legal principle based on the idea […]
What should I consider when I am selling a house or land?
If you are planning to sell a property, one of the factors you must consider during the sale is the process of registering the transaction.
This blog speaks about the process to be followed in case one loses or forgets his or her Aadhar card or enrollment ID.
Right to Choose Source for Medicines/Tests
Patients have the right to decide where they want to buy medicines from or where they want to get tests done from.
Packaging and Warning Labels on Tobacco Products
Every package of cigarettes, or any other tobacco product must contain details about the products and a health warning.
How do you find a Polling Station?
A polling booth or station is fixed at a building or a hall where the voters of the concerned polling area cast their votes.
Driving a defective/Unsafe Motor Vehicle
You cannot drive, or allow someone to drive, a motor vehicle that has any defect which either you (owner) know about or could have known about through ordinary care, which makes the car dangerous to other persons or vehicles
While possession and use of cannabis is illegal in India, only activities relating to the flowering part of the cannabis plant is illegal.
The police officers handling the interrogation should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name tags with their designations.
How do you get Covid-19 vaccination in India?
The Government has allowed two Covid-19 vaccines namely Covaxin and Covishield used in a restricted manner for emergency situations.
What are the costs involved in exercising rights under this law?
For filing a petition for contempt, a certain amount of court fees have to be paid along with it. For contempt proceedings, the court fees are determined by the rules of the respective High Court or the Supreme Court.
Social Media Advertisements
The MCC applies to all social media platforms. There are five categories of social media that are regulated under the MCC.
Theft while Traveling
It is an offence to steal from someone while they are traveling. This is punishable with jail time of up to 3 years and/or a fine.
Maternity Benefit in case of death of a Woman
An employer has the duty to pay maternity benefit even in case the woman dies as a result of the pregnancy.
Organisations Excluded from Giving Information
Certain organisations like the security and intelligence agencies are excluded from giving information under the purview of this law. A list of these excluded organisations is provided in the Second Schedule to the RTI Act.
Your Privacy during the Complaint and Proceedings
The law grants the right to keep the sexual harassment victim's complaint and the things that happen after it private.
Identity theft refers to the act of someone dishonestly stealing and making use of your password, electronic signature, or other unique identification feature.
Government duties against Child Labour
The Central Government has duties to ensure that child labour does not take place and that the provisions of the law are followed.
Do’s and Don’ts of the Army While Providing Aid
The Supreme Court has also listed guidelines for the armed forces while providing aid to the civil authority.
Who are the authorities under the UAPA law?
There authorities under the UAPA law include a Tribunal and a Review Committee.
A Driving License (DL) is an official document, issued in the form of a card, by each State's Regional Transport Office (RTO).
Safe and Quality Healthcare
If a doctor causes death of a patient due to a rash or negligent act, can be punished for such death.
It is illegal to produce or manufacture e-cigarettes leading to a punishment of jail time of upto 1 year and/or a fine of up to Rs 1 lakh.
Opium and Opium Poppy
The punishment for cultivating, selling or using opium or opium poppy is proportional to the quantity of opium or opium poppy involved.
Can you vote without a Voting Card?
You may vote without a voting card. You can carry any of the acceptable government documents to the polling station to cast your vote.
Owning a Vehicle without a horn
Your vehicle should be mandatorily fitted with an electric horn that is capable of giving sufficient and audible warning that the vehicle is approaching.
Notice Issued by Police
In cases where the police can arrest someone without a warrant but are of the opinion that arrest is not required, they can issue a notice to such person to appear before the police or any place specified in the notice.
How is a Covid-19 vaccination developed?
Covid-19 vaccination is developed in four phases including the pre-clinical trials and three successive clinical trials.
How do you file a complaint for contempt?
The procedure to file a contempt petition depends upon the rules of the respective High Courts and the Supreme Courts.
Advertisement on Television
TV broadcasts on elections must be on general events which are relevant and of common interest to the country, without supporting or criticizing and mocking any other candidate or political party.
Under the Indian law, when someone commits theft by breaking into a house, they are punished with a higher penalty.
Nursing Breaks or Creche Facilities
Other benefits, besides maternity leave, i.e. nursing breaks and creche facilities allow women to make an easier transition back into work.
Employer’s Responsibility to Prevent Sexual Harassment
This post discusses the legally mandated steps an employer has to take certain steps to create a safe work environment for women.
Impersonation refers to the act of assuming a fake identity with the intention to deceive a person through the use of a computer or any communication device.
When and where can a Christian Marriage be performed?
A Christian marriage can only be performed between 6 AM and 7 PM in a church, private dwelling or in the presence of a marriage registrar.
Right to Circulate
Media freedom includes both the right to publish and the right to circulate information and opinion.
Can you get bail for UAPA cases?
Yes, but the UAPA has special bail conditions for a person accused of being involved in a terrorist activity or involved with a terrorist organisation.
Updating Driving License
Sometimes, you may need to update certain details on your Driving License (DL), after which you will be given a new DL, and your old DL will be taken away. Please note that you do not have to take a driving test to update your DL. To update your Driving License, follow the steps given […]
How can NRIs and PIOs sell property?
NRIs and PIOs can sell property in India in accordance with RBI's Master Circular. It mandates rules to be followed by NRIs/PIOs in selling.
Complaining Against Doctors or Hospitals
If patients or their caregivers have a grievance against a doctor or the hospital administration regarding the quality of treatment provided, they have a right to seek redressal for the same.
Appeal Against Smoking Violations
If you are punished for any smoking related offence, you may appeal the decision given by the court.
It is illegal to manufacture, transport, sell, possess or use cocaine. The punishment can be imprisonment for up to 10 years or a fine.
What is a Voting Machine?
An Electronic Voting Machine consists of two Units – a Control Unit and a Balloting Unit – joined by a five-meter cable.
Not following Traffic Signals and Signs
Under the law, a traffic light, traffic signal or stoplight is a signalling device positioned on roads to indicate when it is permissible to drive.
What is the punishment for violating Lockdown Orders?
Anyone violating the Lockdown orders imposed by the government can be punished with either imprisonment or a fine or both.
Arrest Without Warrant
There are certain crimes for which the police can arrest you without a warrant. Such crimes are known in law as cognizable offences. These crimes are usually of serious nature such as rape, murder, assault etc.
Is there a right to appeal against a contempt of court decision?
The law only allows a person to appeal against the decision once. If the appeal fails, no further remedy is present under the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971. However, the Constitution of India allows an appeal against any judgment of any court, including the High Court. This is done through a unique form of a petition, known as the ‘Special Leave Petition’.
Advertisement on Radio
Radios are also a medium for advertising by political parties and candidates and the Media Certification and Monitoring Committee(MCMC) in every district and state monitors all radio activity.
What is a ‘Special Marriage’ or Inter-Religious Marriage?
Civil marriages, also commonly called ‘Special Marriages’ or ‘Inter-religious marriages’ do not depend on the religion of the couple.
Pick-Pocketing and Snatching
Pick-pocketing refers to when someone steals items, like your wallet, phone, etc., out of your pocket, bag, etc., and snatching is when someone forcefully snatches away your items from you.
Complaints against Employer
Complaints against employer in case of maternity benefits can be filed with 'Inspectors' under the Act or with Womens' Commissions.
Forming an Internal Complaints Committee
Workplaces with more than 10 employees are required to set up an Internal Complaints committee to handle cases of Sexual Harassment.
Obscene Materials and Sexual Harassment
The law punishes different kinds of crimes if obscene material is shared or you face sexual harassment online.
Child Labour Rehabilitation cum Welfare Fund
A Child Labour Rehabilitation-cum-Welfare Fund is a fund which is established for every one or two districts. The fine paid by the employer is deposited into this Fund.
Right to Report Court Proceedings
Media freedom includes the right to report proceedings of the Court.
Applying for new Driving License
For applying for a new driving license you should apply it in the state you live or ordinarily conduct business.
What should I consider when I am buying a house or land?
Two aspects to consider when buying a land or house, is knowing whether price of house is fair and dispute free ownership.
Patients have the right to receive education about the facts relevant to their condition and healthy living practices.
Consuming banned drugs and substances is illegal in India and the punishment for this includes jail time and/or fine.
How do you remove a voter from Electoral List?
The Electoral Registration Officer issues a notice with the draft of the names of the voters, so that you can object to any of the names.
Disobeying the speed limit
It is an offence to drive beyond the speed limit specified for a road. Most streets and roads have a sign with a number on it that signifies the maximum speed limit for that street or road.
What can you do if you get fake news on Covid-19?
If someone is sharing fake news, there are several punishments they may face depending on the nature of the crime.
Conditions To Be Fulfilled For A Valid Inter-Religious Marriage
There are certain conditions you have to keep in mind at the time of marriage under the Special Marriage Act, 1954.
Shoplifting refers to stealing items from a shop or store and not paying for them. For example, Ram and Shyam go to a provision store to steal chocolates and run away without paying for them.
Proof of Pregnancy/Miscarriage/Abortion/Tubectomy/Operation
Proof of a pregnancy, miscarriage, abortion or tubectomy operation is necessary if you want to claim maternity benefits.
False Complaint of Sexual Harassment
False complaints made on purpose or fake documents given to the committee are taken very seriously and can be punished.
Personal Photos/Videos of You
If someone takes, distributes or publishes your personal photographs or videos without your permission, it is considered a crime.
Rehabilitation of children employed illegally
Any adolescent/child who has been employed illegally will be rehabilitated as per the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015.
What is the Freedom of Artistic Expression?
Everyone enjoys the freedom of artistic expression and creativity. Artistic expression includes the freedom to imagine, create, propagate art and artistic works.
Renewal of Driving License
A Driving License (DL) is valid for a limited time period, based on which you have to renew it. This post elaborates the varying time limits.
Who can buy and/or receive immovable property?
Any citizen of India aged 18+ is eligible to buy property in the country though certain states place some restrictions on agricultural land.
Discharge of Patients
Hospital authorities cannot force patients to stay in the hospital or restrict them from moving out of the hospital.
It is illegal to use, sell, produce, possess or transport poppy straw or poppy straw concentrate.
Is Covid-19 covered under the force majeure clause in contracts?
For COVID 19, whether a contractual obligation can be avoided on the grounds of force majeure depends upon the terms of the contract.
Billboards and Hoardings during Campaigning
Posters, billboards and hoardings can display general information like family planning, social welfare schemes, etc. but not the achievements of political parties, photos of politicians and party symbols during campaigning.
Process Of Registration of Inter-Religious Marriage Under The Act
The registration process for a Special Marriage involves giving notice to the Marriage Officer, signing a declaration, etc.
Facing Violence during Theft
If someone uses violence, with the use of weapons or not, while stealing, the punishment is higher. Under the law, this is called robbery.
Responsibilities of Universities to Prevent Sexual Harassment
Any woman (student, teaching, non-teaching staff) of any age at a University campus can file a complaint of sexual harassment.
If someone intentionally and with malice, says or writes something that insults your religion or religious beliefs, it is considered a crime under the law.
Children working in the family business
Children (below the age of 14) and adolescents are allowed to work in the family business.
Right against Prior Censorship
Pre-censorship is the prior restraint on art or artistic work. Pre-censorship happens when the State imposes prior restraint to restrict the freedom of artistic expression through any form of art.
New Learner’s License
The post elaborates the online and in-person procedure for obtaining a Learner’s License, which is required before you obtain your license.
How can I find the circle rates for a property?
To find the circle rates for a property, you can go to the respective state government’s Department of Registration and Stamps website.
Choosing Alternative Treatment Options
A patient has the right to choose the treatment course once the doctor has informed the patient of all the options.
The manufacture, possession, transport, import, export, sale, purchase and use of Methamphetamine is illegal in India.
Who is a Service Voter?
Upon leaving or retiring from any of the armed forces or other services, you will no longer be considered a service voter.
What are the Covid-19 helpline numbers?
The government has launched helpline numbers and email addresses to approach in case of issues and questions related to Covid-19.
Advertising which is in the nature of political propaganda or pursues a political agenda, is known as political advertising. Political advertising is allowed, but regulated by the MCC.
Solemnizing an Inter-Religious Marriage
There is no specific form or essential ceremony for a marriage under Special Marriage Act but there are two possibilities.
Complaining about Theft
If you face any kind of theft, such as theft of personal items or theft during traveling, you can file an FIR with the nearest police station.
Approaching the Police (Criminal Complaint)
A criminal complaint can be filed if you are being sexually harassed at work. If proved, this will put your harasser in jail.
Account Takeover and Unauthorised Access
If someone takes over your online account, accesses your data or the hardware/software on your computer without your permission, that person is guilty of the offence of unauthorized access.
Health and Safety of Working Children
It is important that health and safety of working children is taken care of and is provided with the highest standards of safety and care.
Right to Depict Potentially Sensitive or Sensational items
The right to freedom of speech and expression covers the right of artists to exhibit all forms of art, even those that showcase obscenity or nudity in some form.
Duplicate/Lost Driving License
The post elaborates the process to be followed to obtain a duplicate driving license if you have lost or damaged your existing license.
What is the importance of home insurance?
You should get a home insurance policy to protect yourself from future losses caused by any damage to the property.
It is illegal to manufacture, sell, possess, transport or use Morphine without proper government licenses.
How can a Service Voter register to vote?
You can register your name as a service voter in the electoral roll of your home constituency, i.e. where your permanent residence is.
Use of Defence Forces for Campaigning
Political parties or candidates cannot use defence forces for campaigning purposes. They cannot use the photographs of any defence forces or army staff during their campaign.
Who is a Marriage Officer?
The main duty of a marriage officer is to facilitate the registration and provide the certificate of marriage to the parties.
Theft by Child
Under the Indian law, if a child commits theft, then the punishment for them is lighter than the punishment for an adult.
Workplace doesn’t have an Internal Committee
If Internal Complaints Committee is absent, you can approach the Local Complaints Committee that has been set up by the District Officer.
Working Hours and Days of Employed Adolescents
Some general rules that should be followed when employing adolescents (except when they are working with family or government-funded/recognized schools).
Right to Prevent Piracy of One’s Materials and Creation
The right to freedom of speech and expression protects the right to protect one's artistic creation from piracy. It also includes the right to defend one's creation from copying and circulation of pirated material or content.
Right to Emergency Medical Care
No patient can be turned away from receiving emergency medical care if they cannot pay for it. Emergency care should be mandatorily provided and all standards of care.
A Learner’s License is a temporary license which is valid for 6 months, which legally allows you to practice driving on Indian roads.
How can immovable property be used to raise bank loans?
Land and housing are valuable assets, and as an owner, you can choose to seek a bank loan by using the property as a collateral.
What is the process of Voting as a Service Voter?
This post elaborates the process of registering as a service voter, the required forms and the manner in which it must be filled and sent.
Heroin is a derivative of opium, the use, sale, possession, production or transportation of which is illegal in India.
Compensation for Sexual Harassment
The amount of money that victims will receive as compensation is determined according to the provisions in the Act.
Unfair Election Practices by Candidates
There are many practices during an election campaign that candidates are not supposed to do, which count as unfair election practices by the candidates.
Theft by House Help/Servant (Domestic Worker)
Theft by a servant or house help is treated more seriously than general punishment for theft as the punishment is higher. Punishment for the servant/help is jail time of up to 7 years and a fine.
Duties of an Employer while employing adolescents
An employer employing an adolescent working in his establishment has to perform certain duties enumerated in this post.
Essential Ingredients of Commercial Speech
Article 19(1)(a) protects the rights of the speaker of commercial speech (such as advertisements and informational pamphlets) as well as the rights of an individual to listen, read, and receive it.
Informed Consent for Medical Procedures
All procedures or treatments on a patient must be done only after he or she has provided consent.
Renewal of Learner’s License
As a Learner’s License is valid only for 6 months, you need to get it renewed or get a new one once that period has passed.
Can I get a bank loan to buy a property using the same property as the collateral?
Yes. You can get a loan from the bank to purchase an immovable property by using the same property as the collateral/security.
How do you cast a Postal Ballot as a Service Voter?
A registered service voter in home constituency and posted elsewhere during elections, will be sent postal ballots.
The sale, manufacture, production, consumption or possession of Diazepam is punishable by jail time up to 20 years or a fine of up to 2 lakh.
Candidate’s Legal Duties to the Community
Candidates while campaigning have a duty to not spread hatred, not promote sati and not make false statements.
Decree of Nullity
A decree of nullity is a judicial decree determining in effect that the marriage in question never existed.
Parents making Children work
Parents and guardians will be fined for making a child below the age of 14 work in any form of employment except for family business and as child artists.
Right to Regulate One’s Own Advertising Space
This right to regulate advertising space in newspapers and other similar media is vital to the freedom of expression.
Duplicate/Lost Learner’s License
If you have lost or damaged your Learner’s License, you can get a duplicate Learner’s License with your application number and date of birth.
Can I purchase a foreclosed property?
Foreclosed properties are generally expected to be auctioned off at rates lower than their true market values.
What is Proxy voting for Service Voters?
A service voter belonging to Armed Forces and CAPF have the option to vote via proxy if they cannot physically attend elections.
Thebaine is a manufactured drug derived from opium. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, transport, sell, purchase and use in India.
Use of Government Property for Political Meeting and Campaigning
The political parties or candidates are not allowed to use public places like maidans, helipads, etc for holding public meetings.
Conditions for Annulment
There are certain conditions for annulment of a marriage. If these conditions are met, a marriage can be annulled.
Punishment for Employers against Child Labour
Any person who employs a child below 14 years of age can be punished with jail term or fine.
Right to Advertise through Comparison with Other Products
The right to advertisement is protected as part of the freedom of speech.
New/Reissue/Updation of Passport
The procedure for a new Passport, updating a Passport and re-issuing a Passport in case you have lost or damaged it, is the same in India.
What is a voter’s right to reject candidates (NOTA)?
None of the Above (NOTA) allows the voters to not choose any of the listed candidates while casting their votes.
In India, it is illegal to use, purchase, sell, possess, manufacture or transport Codeine, a drug derived from opium.
Conduct of Candidate While Campaigning
There is a certain conduct that candidates must follow while campaigning. All political parties and candidates should avoid activities that affect the voters and other candidates
Batil and Fasid Marriages
Under Muslim personal laws, marriages in violation of rules are known as Batil marriages and irregular marriages are called Fasid marriages.
Filing a Complaint against Child Labour
Complaining about any instances of child labour can be via the different modes enumerated in the post.
What is the Freedom of Political Expression
The freedom of political expression is essential for maintaining democracy. This right reinforces the idea that it is the citizens who give legitimacy to the government.
A Passport is an official document issued by the government that allows international travel and serves as a proof of identification.
How do you Report and Complain during Elections?
If you have any complaints due to lack of action etc. by authorities, there are many ways to contact the election authorities
In India, it is illegal to sell, produce, possess, transport or use Ecgonine, a drug derived from the coca plant.
Ban on Use of Official Vehicles during Campaigning
The use of any official vehicles for campaigning or election-related travel from the date of announcement of elections till the completion of elections is not allowed.
Filing an Annulment
To end a marriage through annulment, a petition must be presented to the District Court which has jurisdiction.
Casting of Votes
Casting of votes by citizens is the most visible form of political expression. This is a facet of the right of expression of an individual and is provided under Article 19(1)(a).
Tatkal Passport is a scheme available citizens who need their Passports urgently. The passport is made available in 1 to 3 days.
What is the Voter Helpline Number?
The National, State and District Contact Centre Toll-Free number is 1950 and is operational between 8 am to 8 pm, both in Hindi and English.
The Right to Protest
The right to protest is essential to maintain accountability and prevent arbitrary rule-making by the government.
Procedure for New PAN Number
You can apply for a PAN Number either online or in person. The online application can be made via the NSDL website.
The Right to Criticise the Government
The right to criticise the Government, essential for maintaining accountability, is also a part of the freedom of speech and expression. Dissent and criticism have been hailed as crucial elements for a democracy.
A PAN card represents your Permanent Account Number (PAN) which is a 10-digit alphanumeric identifier, issued by the Income Tax Department.
Why is the Right to Know important?
The right to know is fundamental to the right to freedom of expression. This is because the right to know promotes the free flow of information, and enables citizens to be better informed and helps citizens utilise their freedom of expression more effectively.
Applying for New PAN Card
It is possible to make an application for a new PAN Card when you already have a PAN Number. The post elaborates the steps to be followed.
Right to Request for Official Documents
Unquestionably, the right to freedom of expression involves the right to receive information and public documents from government authorities and other organisations performing a public function.
Updating PAN Card
When you apply for updating details, you will receive a newly issued PAN Card bearing the same PAN Number but with updated information.
Right to Know about the Backgrounds of Electoral Candidates
The right to know about electoral candidates’ background emerges from the voters’ right to free speech and expression.
Ration card is an official document forming a part of the Public Distribution System, and also serves as a proof of identification.
Right to View Live Proceedings of the Court
Live streaming of cases of constitutional importance is considered to be supportive of the right to access justice.
Updating Ration Card
When you update your Ration Card, you get a new card with the details changed, as indicated by you. The post elaborates the procedure.
Applying for New Ration Card
You may require a Ration Card for purposes like getting ID proof, purchasing grains at subsidized prices, etc.
Duplicate/Lost Ration Card
If your Ration Card is damaged or lost, you can approach the Circle Office, and ask them for a duplicate Ration Card.
Voter ID Card
A Voter ID Card is a photo identity card that is issued by the Election Commission of India (ECI) to all individuals who are eligible to vote.
Updating Voter ID Card
Personal details in the Voter ID Card like name, photo, age, gender, address, date of birth, etc can be updated.
Online Safety Guide
How can the guide help you? There is a growing menace of cyber fraud, identity theft, economic offenses using online platforms, revenge porn, issues on online dating apps etc in the Internet era. For instance, one in every five internet users surveyed in India have faced online harassment. It is important to understand which of […]
This illustrated guide will help you understand the laws on arrest and bail in India. It lays out the rights and processes you should know about if you are being arrested and after arrest. It also helps explain what bail and anticipatory bail are and how to apply for them. Click on the link above […]
Procedures for Adoption
How can this guide help you? The Nyaaya Guide on Procedures for Adoption helps you understand everything you need to know about adoption in India with simple language and easy to understand illustrations. This guide tells you about the steps involved in the procedures for Adoption by Resident Indians (Non-Religious Law), Adoption of a Child […]
Your Guide to Voting
How can this guide help you? The Nyaaya Guide on Voting helps you understand everything you need to know about voting in India with simple language and easy to understand illustrations. This guide tells you about the steps involved in getting your voter id, casting your vote, understanding the different kinds of elections, exercising your […]
A Guide to Navigating the Legal System as a Transgender Person in India
A guide to navigating the legal system as a transgender person in India, narrated by people and the law.
Online RTI Application
How can the guide help you? The Nyaaya Guide on Online RTI Applications provides applicants with the steps to take when seeking information under the Right To Information Act, 2005. This guide summarises the processes involved in filing an RTI application online, appeals against certain authorities’ decisions, as well as complaint mechanisms for any online […]
Application form for Certificate of Death
You can download the Application form for Certificate of Death from this page. This is the Application form for Delhi.
Self-Declaration for Travelling in your Private Vehicle during Covid Template
You can download the Self-Declaration for Travelling in your Private Vehicle during Covid Template from this page.
Guide on the Rights of Transgender Persons in India
This Guide discusses the general provisions in the Constitution of India, the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 and the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Rules, 2020.
Guide on Applying for Legal Aid
The Nyaaya Guide on Applying for Legal Aid helps citizens understand how to obtain legal services free-of-cost from Legal Services Authorities in India.
Offline RTI Application
The Nyaaya Guide on Applying Offline under RTI provides applicants with the steps to take when seeking information under the Right to Information Act, 2005.
Guide to Lawful Protesting
The Guide to Lawful Protesting helps you understand your right to protest as a citizen and empowers you with the knowledge of how to carry out lawful protests.
Guide on Registration of Inter-religious Marriages
This guide summarizes the legal and procedural aspects of entering into an inter-religious (special) marriage, including giving notice of the marriage, performing the marriage, and obtaining the marriage certificate.
Voting and Elections
Elections are a way for citizens to choose someone to be their political leader or representative in government. Watch our videos to learn more about your rights as a voter.