How is a Covid-19 vaccination developed?

Last updated on Jun 16, 2022

The Covid-19 vaccine is developed in the following manner1:

Phases of vaccine development or trial Purpose
Pre-clinical phase In this stage, the vaccine is developed in the laboratory.
Phase 1 Clinical trial (8-10 participants) Phase 1 is essential for testing the safety of the vaccine.
Phase 2 Clinical trial (50-100 participants) Phase 2 is essential for testing vaccine immunogenicity i.e. production of antibodies against viruses.
Phase 3 Clinical trial (30,000-50,000 participants) Phase 3 is essential for testing actual protection offered by the vaccine, i.e, based on a larger survey group.

Once the vaccine clears phase 3 of the trial, it is eligible to get licensed and becomes available to the public on the basis of government guidelines.

  1. COVID-19 Vaccines Operational Guidelines, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, accessed at (Page 18[]

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