According to the State of Global Air 2020 report, air pollution in India killed more than 116,000 infants within a month of birth in 2019 (and a total of 1.67 million Indians).

What are the sources and effects of air pollution?

Last updated on Jun 17, 2022

Air pollution is associated with many sectors, which include power, transport, industry, residential, construction, and agriculture.

Sources of Air Pollution

Burning of fossil fuels and emissions

The majority of air pollution comes from the use of energy like the burning of fossil fuels which releases toxic gases and chemicals into the air.1 The two most common types of air pollution are smog and soot, caused by burning of fossil fuels like coal or natural gases. The small airborne particles present in soot or smog are extremely dangerous, as they enter lungs and blood and can lead to bronchitis and heart diseases which can be fatal. 

Other sources of harmful air pollutants are in the emissions from industry, vehicles, road dust, construction, garbage burning, domestic households and diesel generator sets.1

Use of Air Conditioners

Increased use of air conditioners leads to a direct increase in the demand for electricity. This demand for electricity consequently increases the dependence on fossil fuels to meet the collective energy needs. The electricity sector, thus, is the largest source of polluting greenhouse gas emissions. Increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions are responsible for climate change and air pollution. Therefore, increased usage of air conditioners is one of the causes of air pollution and is a threat to public health.2

However, a case cannot be filed against any single individual for such an act, as no one person is solely responsible for the increased demand of energy or air pollution. It is a result of increased use of air conditioners as a community which leads to these harmful effects of air pollution.

Vehicular Pollution

Emissions from vehicles are the source of 60-70% of overall air pollution. The Government is trying to control such emissions through measures like stricter mass emission standards and protocols, phasing out of old vehicles,3 increased awareness about vehicle maintenance and lane discipline, revised fuel efficiency norms like use of alternative fuel programmes and blending of biofuels, promotion of electric or hybrid vehicles and increased use of public transport like metros, e-rickshaws.4

Effects of Air Pollution

Climate Change 

Air pollution is both the cause as well as an effect of climate change. The emissions of carbon dioxide and methane raise the earth’s temperature. Consequently, increased heat leads to smog (smoke and fog) and increased UV radiation.5

Health Impacts 

Air pollution is extremely concerning due to its life-threatening health impacts. However, the impact of air pollution is not limited to health but extends to agriculture and the general well-being of human, plant and animal life. Other effects of air pollution can be irritation of the eyes and throat, damage to the lungs and can trigger allergies and asthma attacks.1 Long term exposure to polluted air may also cause skin problems, harm to liver and reproductive organs. Presence of hazardous chemicals, like lead and mercury, in the air can damage children’s brain function.5 Patients with lung or heart ailments are more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution.



  1. National Clean Air Programme, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, accessed at[][][]
  2. National Research Development Corporation, accessed at:[]
  3. Report of Working Group on Environment and Environmental Regulatory Mechanisms, NITI AAYOG, accessed at:[]
  4. Reference Note, Vehicular Pollution in India, Lok Sabha, accessed at:[]
  5. Air Pollution, National Research Development Corporation, accessed at:[][]

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Related Resources

What are the offences and punishments under air pollution laws?

The offences include releasing of harmful pollutants  into the environment, violation of Pollution Under Control Certificate, etc. 

Who are the authorities under the air pollution laws?

The Central Pollution Control Board and the State Pollution Control Boards have been set up under the law to monitor air pollution in India.

What is Air Pollution?

Air pollution is the presence of dust, fumes, gas, mist, odor, smoke or vapour, in the atmosphere, in quantities that can cause injury to human, plant or animal life or harm the environment.

Who can you complain to about a grievance under air pollution law?

You can complain to the Police, Central and State Pollution Control Boards, Courts and the National Green Tribunal.

What is Noise Pollution?

Noise is common in everyday life, but when it goes above a certain limit, it is considered to be pollution as well as a public nuisance.

What is the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme?

The Central Pollution Control Board established the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) to track air quality.