As of 2018, students having disabilities with a Disability Certificate can get accommodations such as a scribe, a reader, a lab assistant, compensatory time, and assistive devices (where applicable) to help them to successfully complete their examinations.

Guide for Addressing Barriers to Digital Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities

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How can the guide help you?

The Nyaaya Guide for Better Digital Access for the Disabled aims to empower people with disabilities (PwD) to effectively exercise their rights to access digital platforms.

What are the laws being discussed in the guide?

This guide discusses the duties of government agencies, law courts, civil society organizations and private companies to ensure better digital access to the disabled as laid down under the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016, Rights of Persons with Disabilities Rules, 2017, and the judgement passed by the Court of Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, in the case of Rahul Bajaj v. The Director, Practo Technologies Pvt. Ltd. & Ors.1 

Who Is A Person With Disabilities

A person with disability is a person with a long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment, which restricts their full and effective participation in society equally with others.

Who Is A Person With “Benchmark” Disabilities

A person with benchmark disability is someone who has at least 40% of a specified disability.

Specified disabilities include:

  1. Physical Disability

Locomotor Disability: Inability to perform activities associated with movement. People with locomotor disability include those with cerebral palsy, dwarfism, muscular dystrophy, acid attack victims, etc.

  1. Impairment: A condition of blindness or low vision.
  2. Hearing Impairment: Deafness or loss of hearing.
  3. Speech and language disability: Permanent disability affecting speech and language.
  1. Intellectual Disability

Significant limitations in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and adaptive behaviour (everyday social and practical skills) including specific learning disabilities and autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Mental Illness

Substantial disorder of thinking, mood, perception, orientation or memory that severely impairs judgement, behaviour, capacity to recognise reality or ability to meet the ordinary demands of life. This does not include mental retardation.

Disability caused due to

    1. Chronic neurological conditions: Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease
    2. Blood disorders: Haemophilia, Thalassemia, Sickle cell disease

Multiple Disabilities: More than one of the above specified disabilities.

  1. Any other disability specified by the Central Government.

Ways In Which A Disabled Person Can Address Barriers To Improve Digital Accessibility       

The five steps listed below may help you contact and collaborate with service providers and companies to make sure that PwDs have equal access to facilities and services they provide. 

  1. Send a letter to the concerned service provider to alert them about accessibility issues on their platform and request that they take appropriate remedial actions;
  2. If there is no response to the initial letter, you      can again send a reminder letter after 7–10 days;
  3. If there is no      response, you      can start      a focused social media campaign to generate greater public consciousness about the problems you      are facing. This will help in persuading the      service provider to consider your      needs carefully and work towards implementing them;
  4. You can send a      legal notice, giving the service provider a final opportunity to address the barriers on their platform within a reasonable time, typically no more than 10 days; and
  5. You can exercise your rights, if the legal notice is also not paid heed to, in the manner mentioned in this guide below.

Available Legal Remedies 

The Act2 provides for the appointment of a Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities at the Central level and State Commissioners for Persons with Disabilities at the State level. Under Rule 38 of RPwD Rules 2017, you can directly write a petition and present the same to the Chief Commissioner either in person/or through a representative/ or through registered post/ or through an email. In the ‘contact information’ section of this Guide, the contact details of each of these bodies are set out. You can write to them using these details.

Section 89 of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 also lays out the penalties for violating the provisions of the Act. In the first instance, the penalty is a fine of up to Rs. 10,000. In case of further contraventions, the fine can be between Rs. 50,000 and Rs. 5,00,000/-.

How To Avail The Legal Remedies

Who can avail the remedies?

In accordance with Rule 38 of the RPwD Rules 2017, any person with a disability may submit a complaint by mail, hand, or email. The complaint must be accompanied by a copy of the person’s disability certificate and any supporting documentation. Supporting documentation includes a copy of any email correspondence you have had with the service provider. It could also include screenshots/printouts of any social media posts that you have put up on the subject and any evidence of inaccessibility [such as an accessibility audit report]. Typically, an audit report is not necessary.

How can you approach the Chief Commissioner?

You can approach the Chief Commissioner in one of the following ways:

  1. Approach the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities     via:                 
    1. Visiting in Person     
    2. Through a Representative     
    3. Through Registered Post at Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Govt. of India, 5th Floor, NISD Building, Plot No.G-2, Sector-10, Dwarka, New Delhi-110075     
  2. Complaint sent by E-mail at

What details do you need to provide in the complaint?

  1. The name of the complainant, the name of the affected person with disability, complete postal address, contact number, and email, if available.
  2. Brief description of the affected person with disability.
  3. Nature and percentage of disability.
  4. The name of the person(s) and organization(s) against whom the complaint is being made, their address, contact number, and email, so far as they can be ascertained.
  5. The facts relating to the complaint.
    1. What happened?
    2. When did the incident happen?
    3. Where did it happen?
    4. What reliefs do you seek?

Documents you need to submit along with the complaint.

You must include the following documents:

  1. Documents in support of the allegations contained in the complaint. 
  2. A clear and legible copy of the Disability Certificate of the person with disability from a valid authority which would mean government hospitals that are authorized to issue such certificates.

What’s next?

After receipt of your complaint by the Commissioner, they will forward a copy of the complaint to the opposing party named in the complaint. The opposing party is typically given a period of 30 days to file a response. The Complainant is then given 15 days to file their rejoinder [response to the reply]. Then, a hearing is appointed. The Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities tries to dispose of complaints within 3-6 months from the date of filing. If the opposing party or their representative does not show up on the scheduled hearing date, the Commissioner may, in accordance with the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Act 2016, take the necessary steps to summon and compel the opposing party’s attendance or decide the complaint ex-parte, i.e., without requiring all of the parties to the dispute to be present.

It should be noted that the Commissioner may on such terms as they deem fit and at any stage of the proceedings, adjourn the hearing of a complaint.


Contact Information 

  • Office of the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan)

5th Floor, NISD Building, Plot No.G-2, Sector-10, New Delhi-110075

Telephone Number: 011-20892364, 20892275

E-mail:, Website:


  • Addresses of State/UT’s Commissioners for Persons with Disabilities (as on February 2022)
Sl. No. State/UT’s Name & Address Contact Details
1. Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Shri Pratik Raj Yadav Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities Andaman & Nicobar AdministrationDirectorate of Social Welfare GoalGhar, Port Blair  Phone:  (03192) 233356 (O )Fax: (03192) 243817E-Mail: directorsw4@gmail.comMob: 08900916004
2. Andhra Pradesh    Shri B. Ravi Prakash ReddyCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities & Director (FAC), Welfare of Differently Abled, Transgender & Sr. Citizens Govt. of Andhra Pradesh,Rajanarendra Building 1st Floor, 74-14-2, Yanamalakuduru Road, Krishna Nagar, Vijayawada – 520007 Phone : 0866-2975602Whatsapp/Mobile : 8374032888E-mail :  
3. Arunachal Pradesh    Smt. Padmini SirlaCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, & Secretary Social Justice Empowerment & Tribal Affairs (SJETA), Govt. Arunachal Pradesh, Block No. 02, Second Floor, Room No. 202, Civil Secretariat, Itanagar-791111 Phone : 0360- 2291559Fax: (0360) 2212541Mobile No: 09971199013E-mail: 
4. Assam   Shri Debeswar Borah, ACSCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Govt. of Assam, Latakata, Basistha, Guwahati,  Assam-781029 Phone: 0361-2999858Fax: 0361-2309198E-mail : 9476570329
5.  Bihar    Shri Raj Kumar, IASCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities O/o the State Commissioner for Disability, Government of Bihar, Old Secretariat, Sinchai Bhawan Campus, Patna – 800015 Phone : 0612-2215041 E-Mail : scdisability2008@gmail.comWebsite : scdisabilities.orgFax : 0612 2215152(M) : 9471000437
6. Chandigarh(UT)  Smt. Nitika PawarCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, & Secretary  Social Welfare, Chandigarh Administration Room No. 410, 4th Floor, Deluxe Building, Sector – 09, Chandigarh – 160019 0172-2743860E-mail: sspersonnelut@gmail.comMobile No: Nitika Pawar: 08510890851
7. Chhattisgarh   Smt. Reena Babasaheb KangaleCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities & Secretary Women & Child Development, Dept. of Social Welfare, Jila Panchayat Parisar, G.E. Road Durg, Chhatisgarh- Pin code- 491001 Phone: 0788-2325470  E-Mail:                
8.      Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu (UT)  Smt. Pooja Jain Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, & Secretary, Social Welfare, Administration of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu, Social Welfare Department, Lekha Bhavan, Third Floor, Silvasa-396230 Phone No: 0260-2642413, 2642037, Social Welfare: 0260-2632027Email: 
9. Delhi (UT)  Shri Ranjan Mukherjee, VSM Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities Govt. of N.C.T. of Delhi25-D, Mata Sundari Road, Near Guru Nanak Eye Centre,New Delhi – 110002  Phone: 23216001-04Telefax :    23216005E-Mail: Website: 9958066443
10.  Goa   Shri Guruprasad Pawaskar  Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, C/o Sanjay Centre for Special Education, Ground Floor Pundalik Nagar, Porvorim, Bardez- Goa-403521Email: dis-comm.goa@gov.inContact: 09822132023 Mobile No: 09822132023E-mail: 
11.     Gujarat  Shri V.J Rajput, IAS Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Government of Gujarat,Karmayogi Bhavan, Block No. 2, Ground Floor, Wing No. D-1, Sector-10, Gandhinagar-382010 Phone: (079) 23256746 – 49 (Office)Phone:(079)26403060, 26424902 (R )Telefax: (079) 23259378, 23256746Email:    9978406984
12. Haryana Shri Raj Kumar MakkadCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Department of Social Justice and Empowerment, HaryanaAntodaya Bhawan, Opposite Kothi No. 9, Sector-6, Panchkula Phone: 0172- 2929467Mobile: 9416058227 E-Mail: 
13. Himachal Pradesh  Shri Sanjay Gupta Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities & Secretary,  Social Justice & Empowerment, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh,Himachal Pradesh Govt. Secretariat, Shimla – 171002 Himachal Pradesh Phone: 0177- 2621871/2880716E-Mail: 
14. Jammu & Kashmir     Mr. M Iqbal Lone
Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities,
Government of J&K
Office of the Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities Vigilance Building Old-
Secretariate Srinagar, Jammu
and Kashmir 190001.30 A/B Gole Market, Gandhinagar Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir-180004.Phone : +911944-057772Email:
15. Jharkhand    Shri Avinash Kumar Additional Secretary/ Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, O/o the State Commissioner for Persons with DisabilitiesDepartment of Women, Child Development & Social Security Ground Floor, EngineerÔÇÖs Hostel Building-2, Sec-III, Dhurwa, Ranchi – 834004 Phone : 0651-2401825/2400757Fax : (0651) 2401886(M) 8757910061E-mail:      
16. Karnataka    Smt. Lata KumariCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities Govt. of KarnatakaNo.55, KSDB Building, Riasaldhar Street, Sheshadripuram, Bangalore-560020 Phone 080- 23462625  23462641Mobile No : PS to Commissioner08022866066Telefax : (080) 23462029E-Mail :
17. Kerala   Shri S.H. PanchapakesanCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Government of  Kerala, Anjaneya, T.C.-9/1023 (1), Ground Floor, Sasthamangalam,  Thiruvananthapuram – 695 010 Telefax: 0471-2727704Phone: (0471) 2720977(O)(M) 6238785118E-Mail:    
18. Ladakh (UT) Ms. Padma Angmo, IISSecretary, Social Welfare DepartmentAdministration of Union territory of LadakhCivil Secretariat, Leh, Ladakh-194101 Phone No: 01982-258365Email:
19. Lakshadweep(UT)  Shri Lekh Raj, DANICSCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities & Director, Social Welfare & Tribal Affairs (SWTA), Lakshadweep AdministrationDirectorate of Social Welfare & Tribal Affairs, Kavaratti-682555 Phone: 04896-262547 E-Mail: 9687823230
20. Madhya Pradesh   Shri Sandeep Razak Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh,Community Hall, New Market,T.T. Nagar, Bhopal – 462003 Madhya Pradesh Phone : 0755-2773008 Fax:       0755-2552665 E-mail:  
21. Maharashtra   Shri Om Prakash DeshmukhCommissioner for Persons with DisabilitiesO/o the State Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Department of Social Justice & Special AssistanceGovt. of Maharashtra 3, Church Road. Pune – 411001Maharashtra  Phone: 020-26122061 /26126471/26136845Fax: 020-26111590(M) 9850835678E-Mail:
22. Manipur   Shri Th. Dilipkumar SinghCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Govt. of Manipur,Old High Court Complex, North AOC,  Imphal – 795001 Phone : 0385-2444021E-Mail:
23. Meghalaya Smt. S.B. Marak, MCSCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Govt. of MeghalayaLower Lachumiere, Temple Road,Meghalaya, Shillong Phone : 0364-2506521(M) 917005711584E-mail :
24. Mizoram      Ms. Vanlaldiki Sailo,Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Govt. of Mizoram,MC-3A, V.L Rema Building, Opp. SBI Chaltlang Branch, Chaltlang Venglai, Mizoram Aizwal-796014 Mizoram  Phone:: (0389) 2399213, 2322532                  (O)0389-2322671Fax: (0389) 2398134 Mob: 9436141825Ms. Vanlaldiki SailoE-mail:
25. Nagaland     Diethono NakhroCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, O/o the State Commissioner for Persons with DisabilitiesNew Secretariat Road (Opposite State Civil Secretariat Complex)Kohima-797004 Nagaland Phone: (0370) 2270284, 2270279Telefax: (0370) 2270284 (O)E-Mail: scpdnagaland@gmail.comWebsite:
26. Odisha Smt. Sulochana DasCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, SIDR Building, Capital Hospital Campus,  Unit-6, Bhubaneswar – 751 001  Phone: 0674- 2390006 Help line No : 1800345673E-Mail:
27. Puducherry(UT)     Shri Uday KumarCommissioner for Persons with   Disabilities & Director  Directorate of Social WelfareNo. 1, Saradambal Nagar, Ellaipillaichavady, Puducherry – 605001 Phone: 0413ÔÇö2206762/2205871-72Fax: 0413-2206762E-Mail:  
28. Punjab     Shri Sumer Singh Gurjar, IASState Commissioners for Persons with Disabilities, Room No. 519, 5th Floor, Mini-Secretariat, Punjab Civil Secretariat-2, Sector-9 Chandigarh – 160009 Phone No : 0172-2740190(M) 9465902258E-Mail :
29. Rajasthan       Shri Umashankar SharmaCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, & Secretary, Social Justice & Empowerment DepartmentGovt. of Rajasthan G-3/1 A, Vishesh YogyaJan Bhawan, Hotel Rajmahal Residency Area, Jaipur. Phone : 0141-2222937 2222503Fax : (0141) 2222503, 2222249E-Mail:               
30. Sikkim Shri Tshewang Gyachho, SCSCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Social Justice & Welfare Department, Govt. of Sikkim, Samaj Kalyan Bhawan, 5th Mile, Lumsey -737102 Phone/Fax: 03592-232596(M) 9733224497 E-Mail:            
31. Tamil Nadu    Shri Thiru. Johny Tom Vargheese, IASCommissioner for Person with Disabilities, Govt. of Tamil Nadu,No. 5, Kamarajar Salai, Lady Wellington College Campus, Chennai-600005  Phone: 044-28444940 (O) Fax: 044-28444941E-mail : :
32. Telangana Smt. B. Shailaja, M.A., L.L.BCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities  Vikalangula Sankeshma Bhavan, Nalgonda X Roads, Malakpet, Hyderabad – 500036 Phone: 040-24559048Whatsapp No./Mobile No: 9849905475E-Mail: 
33. Tripura  Shri Yatendra KumarCommissioner for Persons with DisabilitiesGovernment of Tripura,Secretariat building, Capital Complex,2nd Floor, Room No-4202West Tripura, Pin-799010 Phone: 0381-2326033/2413579Mob: 09599441411E-Mail:
34. Uttar Pradesh   Mr. Hemant Rao, IASCommissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh Rajkiya Dristribadhit Chhatron ka Chhatravas, Vidya Bhawan Campus,      Near Rajkiya Inter College, J.B.T.C Compound, Nishatganj, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh – 226007 Phone:    0522-4335129                 0522-4026512Telefax : 0522-2229063E-Mail: info@commissionerdisabilitiesup.inWebsite:
35. Uttarakhand    Shri Pradeep Singh Rawat Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities, Women & Social Welfare DepartmentGovt. of Uttarakhand, 12 Tilak Road, Near Bindal Pool, DehradunÔÇô248001, Uttarakhand Phone: 0135-2727981  Social Welfare   0135-2712245   E-Mail:             
36. West Bengal  Shri Alokesh Prasad Roy, IAS  State Commissioner for Persons with DisabilitiesGovt. of West BengalSubhanna, 7th Floor, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700064. Phone: 033-2359-799722374731E-mail :


  1. Identify a particular app, website or digital offering [ATM device, point of sale device, washing machine, etc.] that is not disabled friendly     .
  2. Find out the company that makes available the given facility or service.
  3. Write to Mission Accessibility at, to raise a grievance.
  4. In collaboration with Mission Accessibility, write a letter to the concerned service provider about their offering being inaccessible. Write a follow-up letter after 7-10 days in case there isn’t a positive response to the first letter.
  5. If there is no response within 10 days of the second letter, tag the service provider on social media and alert them to your grievance.
  6. If there is no response to the same within ten days, work with Mission Accessibility to formulate a legal notice against the service provider.
  7. If there is no response to the legal notice within      10-15 days, file a complaint in the office of the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities or State Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities.
  8. Once you obtain a favourable order, check the facility/service regularly to ascertain if it has become disabled friendly.
  9. If the proceedings in the Chief/State Commissioner’s Court do not yield the desired outcome, approach the relevant High Court or Supreme Court of India, in collaboration with Mission Accessibility.
  10. If the desired results are obtained i.e. the facility/service becomes accessible, continue to check the facility/service regularly to ensure that it does not again become inaccessible.

This guide was made in collaboration with Mission Accessibility, an NGO that works to make digital offerings more disabled friendly. Their email ID is

Sources of Information 

  1. Duties and functions of the Chief Commissioners at
  2. Learn how to register a complaint with the Chief Commissioner at
  3. Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016
  4. Rights of Persons with Disabilities Rules, 2017.
  5. Rahul Bajaj v. The Director, Practo Technologies Pvt. Ltd. & Ors.1
  1. Rahul Bajaj v. The Director, Practo Technologies Pvt. Ltd. [PTPL] & Ors. [2022], 13205/1102/2022 [CCPD] [] []
  2. Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 []

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