Contempt of court is any action or writing, meant to lower the authority of a court or a Judge or to interfere with the course of justice or the lawful process of the court. The Contempt of Court Act, 1971, defines contempt of court to include two kinds- civil and criminal contempt1. A contempt proceeding is not a dispute between two parties, but rather a proceeding between the court and the person accused of contempt.
Types of Contempt of Court
Contempt of court can be broadly categorized into two – civil and criminal contempt2.
Civil contempt refers to:
- A willful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order or writ. For example, D disobeyed a court order to submit her financial records to the court in an ongoing case. This would be an instance of civil contempt.
- A willful breach of an undertaking or affidavit given to a court. For example, V submitted an affidavit to the court that she would return certain confidential papers to her employer within a week but failed to return it within that time period. This would be an instance of civil contempt3.
The undertaking or affidavit given to the court can be in the form of a promise or a direction, based on which the court decides whether something was done or not4. For example, not following an undertaking/affidavit where a person has promised to pay a certain amount of money to court. The main intention of this law is to ensure that people uphold the sanctity of the judicial system and obey the directions given by the court5.
Criminal contempt does not require the existence of a judgment, order, direction, decree, writ, or undertaking/affidavit. For criminal contempt, the law requires a publication or action or an attempt, which has any of the following consequences:
- Scandalises or lowers the authority of any court. For example, if someone deliberately defames and raises their voice at a judge.
- Prejudices, or interferes with any court or tribunal proceeding. For example, a false statement made against a judge for collusion in their capacity as a ‘judge’.
- Obstructs the administration of justice in any other manner6. For example, if a person stops municipal authorities who have been told by the Court to demolish a building.
- Section 2(a), Contempt of Courts Act, 1971.
- State of Maharashtra v Mahboob S. Allibhoy, Supreme Court, (1996) 4 SCC 411.
- Section 2(b), Contempt of Courts Act, 1971.
- Jayanta Roy v Howrah Parcel (Eastern Railway) Labour Contractor Mazdur Panchayat, Calcutta HC 2000 (1) CHN 884 (Cal).
- Subrata Kunda v Kshiti Goswami, Calcutta HC, 2010 (1) CHN 306.
- Section 2(c) , Contempt of Courts Act, 1971.
- Delhi Judicial Service Association, Tis Hazari Court v. State of Gujarat, (1991) 4 SCC 406